Microgrids provide efficient, low-cost, clean energy, enhance local resiliency, and supports the operations and stability of the regional electric grid. They provide dynamic responsiveness unprecedented for an energy resource.
Engineering services provide support to environmentally challenging power and/or fuel applications. The Design parameters are consistent with best available control technology (BACT) and lower CO2 emissions.
A microgrid is in front of or behind the utility meter with highly efficiency and economic distributed energy resources that clearly meets electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. A microgrid can parallel with the grid system and disconnect from the grid due to grid outages or power conditions to enable it to operate as island mode. This seamless transition is design for site resiliency and stainability of operations
Microgrid Design Parameters
A microgrid project is typically made up of a variety of generation sources serving a precisely defined geographic area.
To maximize energy efficiencies, power transfer and consumption, a new Distributed Energy Resource (DER) grid will be established.
Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
Maximize energy efficiencies up to 90% with lower emissions compared to standard generators systems and thermal heating or cooling systems consumption. This technology of thermal exhaust heat exchanger energy will support fuel and/or energy usage savings for HVAC systems to the highest efficiency of generation of energy. This DER can also eliminate the need or minimize the need for site backup of generators.
CHP units will be co-located with the thermal loads of targeted buildings to support thermal efficiencies for site operations and fuel usage for equipment heating, buildings, water systems or chilling requirements.
Solar Photovoltaics (PV)
A photovoltaic (PV) system comprises of a number of solar cells, which generate electrical power.
Solar PV arrays will be located opportunistically on suitable rooftops, parking areas, and in possible locations where opportunities for ground-mount arrays exist. This energy development based on availability of arrays will support site load profiles and the CHP/BUG’s DER’s by increasing the efficiency and economics of operations with reduction of fuel usage and increase of thermal energy. These resources of energy will also support the Energy Storage economics and efficiency of recharging, along with Shorepower for all DER’s devices.
Energy Storage Systems (ESS)
Design of energy storage systems (ESS) into a microgrid has many top-level values that greatly improves the payback period for the whole system. The energy storage system has many roles of operation support for the microgrid that can bring a 99.999% resiliency and prevent any energy curtailments.
Energy Storage will support a 100% seamless transition into Microgrid Island mode, along with supporting CHP spike energy, power conditioning, along with peak demand or demand response for the grid. This system will integrate with other microgrid DER’s based on economics and efficiency for recharge cycling and is designed for use based on completed cycle per day.
Point of Common Coupling Design Detail (PCC)
The process of islanding a microgrid can create instability (in the form of an electrical transient). To minimize this, the design incorporates a PCC structure that will help to protect the microgrid from danger.
A microgrid controller will adjust all microgrid resources for island mode operation and performance objectives
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER
CHP generators provide electrical and thermal energy from a single source. The use of fuel to generate both heat and power makes CHP systems more cost effective than traditional power generation. Most utility application power generation produces heat as a byproduct, but because power is generated far from the end user, the heat is lost. CHP units take advantage of the fact that they are co-located with the end user and make use of thermal energy for heating and sometimes even cooling nearby buildings. Internal combustion engines, also called reciprocating engines, use a reciprocating motion to move pistons inside cylinders that turn a shaft and produce power.
Internal combustion engines, also called reciprocating / fuel cells / turbines are used to produce power with thermal recovery. These combustion DER’s typically sized to meet average based load range and meeting thermal requirements. They are best suited for load-following applications.
Solar photovoltaic systems (PV) can be rooftop, parking lot, or ground mounted using hail-rated solar panels. PV devices generate electricity directly from sunlight via an electronic process that occurs naturally in certain types of material, called semiconductors. Electrons in these materials are freed by photons and can be induced to travel through an electrical circuit, resulting in the flow of electrons to create energy in the form of direct current. The direct current is transformed into usable alternating current through the use of an inverter.
MICROGRID PORTFOLIO APPROACH
A microgrid portfolio involves the integration of a variety of generation sources including the following that serves a precisely defined geographic area:
Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
Solar Photovoltaics (PV)
Energy Storage System (ESS)
Building Load Control
Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs)
To ensure that the microgrid resources are not oversized, EEM measures would include the installation of LED lighting, premium efficiency motors, variable speed drives, and advanced building controls.
New Distributed Energy Resource (DER) will minimize the need for the backup generator operation to minimize natural gas and diesel fuel usage. CHP units will be co-located with the thermal loads of targeted buildings. Solar PV arrays will be located opportunistically on suitable rooftops, in parking areas, and in locations where opportunities for ground-mount arrays exist. Energy storage units will be sited near the solar PV arrays, with preference for indoor locations. Existing backup generators will be leveraged to support island operations in conjunction with the new DER.